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Toward the Development of a Second Generation Computerized Job-Matching System for Persons with Disabilities: A Conceptual Framework


Autor/in:

Wong, Daniel W.; Chan, Fong; Gay, Dennis A. [u. a.]


Herausgeber/in:

National Rehabilitation Association


Quelle:

The Journal of Rehabilitation, 1992, Volume 58 (Number 1), Seite 70-77, Alexandria, Virginia: Eigenverlag, ISSN: 0022-4154


Jahr:

1992



Abstract:


Als Alternative zu den bisherigen Computerized Job-matching Systems stellen die Autoren ein Konzept für ein neues Expertensystem vor, das
1) die Möglichkeiten der Anpassung des Behinderten an das berufliche Anforderungsprofil und
2) die Möglichkeiten der Anpassung des beruflichen Anforderungsprofils an den Behinderten berücksichtigt.

Für die Aktivierung dieser Anpassungspotenziale wollen die Autoren die mittlerweile reichen Erfahrungen im Bereich beruflicher Rehabilitation nutzen. Das neue Expertensystem soll zudem nicht nur das Anforderungsprofil des Berufes berücksichtigen, sondern auch prüfen, ob das Umfeld der Tätigkeit zu dem Persönlichkeitsprofil des Behinderten passt.

Grundlegend für dieses neue Expertensystem sind neuere Entwicklungen in der Forschung über künstliche Intelligenz. Die Verwendung des FUZZY SET-Mechanismusses soll es möglich machen, ein Maximum an Informationen zu verarbeiten, um Behinderten geeignete Tätigkeitsfelder zu vermitteln.


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Englisches Abstract:

Toward the Development of a Second Generation Computerized Job-Matching System for Persons with Disabilities: A Conceptual Framework

Toward the Development of a Second Generation Computerized Job-Matching System for Persons with Disabilities: A Conceptual Framework

Abstract:


The rapid development of integrated circuit technology has enabled computer manufacturers to condense the main component of the computer, the central processing unit (cpu), into a very inexpensive silicon chip smaller than a postage stamp (Restak, 1980). This technological breakthrough has resulted in a proliferation of low-cost but powerful mini-computer and microcomputer systems that can perform complex data processing and computing functions which once required costly large mainframe computer systems.

The same technology has also facilitated the development of super performance mainframe computers. These computers have made possible telecommunications, computer networks, office automation, and distributed processing systems (Synnott & Gruber, 1981). The widespread availability of computer telecommunication technology to the general public is changing the way American workers prepare for and perform their jobs. Naisbitt (1982) stated that the United States is moving rapidly from a manufacture-based to an information-based and service-based economy.

The field of rehabilitation is not, nor should it be, insulated from these developments. According to a recent national survey of the Stout Vocational Rehabilitation Institute (Menz & Bordieri, 1986), training in computers in information management is one of the categories ranked by rehabilitation facilities administrators and managers as having the greatest need for training. In response to this, rehabilitation professionals must learn to take advantage of, and adapt to, this new information technology. For the past few years, numerous descriptions and discussions of computer applications were published in professional journals in areas such as rehabilitation counseling, vocational evaluation, work adjustment, and job placement (Buckhead & Sampson, 1985; Chan, McCollum, & Parker, 1985; Chan, Matkin, Parker, & McCollum, 1988; Chan & Questad, 1981; Crimado & Goodley, 1985; McCollum & Chan, 1985).

Computerized Job Matching-Systems

One of the primary uses of microcomputer technology in rehabilitation has been in the area of 'computerized job-matching' For example, in a recent review of computerized job-matching software, Botterbusch (1986) identified more than 15 major commercial software packages available to rehabilitation professionals. The proliferation of these software programs can be partially attributed to the long standing emphasis of job placement in rehabilitation.

According to Dunn (1974), the quality of job placement of each client is determined early in the exploration and planning phases of the vocational rehabilitation process. To facilitate vocational decision-making, a rehabilitation client must be exposed systematically to the world of work, develop insights for skills, abilities, interest and physical limitations, and be sensitive to labor market constraints. This, in turn, requires the skilled rehabilitation counselor to become knowledgeable about (a) the vocational implications of a variety of disabilities, (b) the work demands and requirements of different occupations, (c) the job trends and training opportunities in the local and national labor economy, and (d) the development and availability of job accommodation methods and assistive devices for people with disabilities (Roessler & Rubin, 1982).

The time and energy required for manually keeping up with the sophisticated and ever-changing world of work information is overwhelming. Computerized job-matching system were designed, to a large extent, to alleviate the counselor from those most time consuming tasks of collecting and retrieving up-to-date occupational data. As a result, these system have gained wide acceptance among professionals in the rehabilitation community (Chan McCollum, & Pool, 1985).

Specifically, a computerized job-matching system is a computer software program that is capable of systematically comparing an individual's employability profile (vocational strengths and weaknesses) against the requirements of a job, a cluster of closely related jobs, or a training program in a 'world of work' data base (Botterbush, 1986). The strengths and limitations of rehabilitation clients are usually determined by clinical interview, counselling, psychological assessment, and vocational evaluation. The data bases used in these system are usually extracted from the fourth edition of the Dictionary of Occupational Titles (DOT).

Methodological Considerations for Developing Computerized Job Matching Systems

Although the value of computerized job-matching system to rehabilitation professionals is well established, these DOT based system are not without major problems (Botterbusch, 1986; Chan, Parker, Dial, Lam, & Chan, 1989). The accuracy of the 12,000 jobs describes in the DOT is frequently challenged by researchers (Bose, Grzesik, Geist, & Bryant, 1986; Miller, Trieman, Cain, & Roos, 1980). Recently, Bose et al., 1986), after analyzing representative sample of occupations in the Chicago area, concluded that the DOT definitions for many occupations are no longer valid due to rapid technological changes.

The closed system of the current computerized job-matching programs may be substantially unfair to the client. In a traditional manual search, the couselor, based on his or her clinical experience, will have the flexibility of adjusting th performance scores of a client to include jobs that may be appropriate with modification. Whereas in the typical present day computer search, the computer tends to utilize cutoff scores to select occupations with very little, if any, flexibility. Basically, the machine takes control of the job-matching process and the benefit of human judgement is not optimally solicited. It is easy to see how this type of job machine approach could inadvertently rule out many jobs that might be appropriate.

Another set of problems [...].

[Beginning of article]


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The Journal of Rehabilitation
Homepage: https://www.questia.com/library/p5155/the-journal-of-rehabil...

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Referenznummer:

R/ZA4615


Informationsstand: 21.05.2013

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